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The world after september 11 - table of contents

The world after September 11

A) Introduction: How I experienced September 11

September 11, 2001 - a day that shocked the entire world. For many people all over the globe this day will be remembered as one of the most terrible and unbelievable days ever, even if they were not directly involved. The attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City, on the Pentagon in Washington D.C. and the crash of an airplane in Somerset Country near Pittsburgh not just killed more than 3,056 people[1] and damaged or destroyed more than 30 buildings[2]. There were far reaching consequences.

"September 11 changed the whole world." "Nothing will be like it was before." How often was this said following 9/11? But what exactly wasn't like it had been before? What had changed in politics, economy, on country maps and in our daily lives?

[...]

In the following weeks many questions went through my head. I kept asking myself: How will the world react to the attacks? Will there be basic changes in our private lives? What were the terrorists trying to achieve and why did they choose the United States of America? Will there be an economic breakdown? There were so many questions for me which needed answering that I went to the city library and borrowed some books. I collected newspaper articles about September 11 and I read many web pages on the internet. In February 2002 I decided to make the consequences of September 11 the topic of this research paper. Beside the fact that I was very interested in this subject I had already read many books and gathered a lot of information on this issue.

Liberty Street

First of all I want to give a short summary of what happened on September 11, the day that changed the whole world and our daily lives.


B) September 11 and its consequences for the world

I. September 11, 2001: Chronological order (in Eastern Time)

At 08:46 a.m. a hijacked passenger jet (American Airlines Flight 11) from Boston, bound for Los Angeles, crashes into the North Tower of the World Trade Center. It was initially believed to be an accident. But later, at 09:03 a.m., a second hijacked aircraft (United Airlines Flight 175) also from Boston and bound for Los Angeles slams into the South Tower, causing an explosion in the building's upper floors. Now both towers are burning. FAA[3] officials close all airports around New York City. On the orders of the Port Authority all tunnels and bridges in the New York area are closed. All train and bus services are also halted. At 09:30 a.m. President Bush, at that time on a school visit in Sarasota, Florida, calls the crashes "an apparent terrorist attack".All flights cancelled Within ten minutes the FAA grounds all flights and directs all incoming international flights to Canada. It was the first time that civil air traffic nationwide was stopped. At 09:38 another American Airlines flight (American Airlines Flight 77), also hijacked, crashes into the Pentagon - the symbol of the U.S. military - causing the building to burst into flames. The Pentagon upgrades its terrorism alert status to "delta", the highest level possible. Federal buildings and the White House are being evacuated. Two minutes later the president leaves Florida aboard Air Force One. At 10:05 a.m. the South Tower crumbles to the ground. Streets near the building are full of debris, dust and smoke. At 10:10 a.m. a part of the Pentagon collapses. Seconds later the hijacked United Airlines Flight 93 from Newark to San Francisco crashes in Somerset Country near Pittsburgh, Western Pennsylvania. This airplane was probably shot down by U.S. jet fighters[4]. The terrorists most likely tried to navigate this aircraft into Camp David, the U.S. Capitol building or the White House. Three minutes later the United Nations building in New York City evacuates. More than 10,000 people had to leave their work. In Washington D.C. the State and Justice departments and the World Bank are evacuated.World Trade Center At 10:28 a.m. the North Tower of the World Trade Center collapses. In the early afternoon President Bush in Barksdale Air Force Base in Louisiana announces that "the United States will hunt down and punish those responsible for these cowardly acts". At 01:44 p.m. a state of emergency is declared in Washington D.C. At about 06:00 p.m. explosions rock Kabul, capital city of Afghanistan. The White House denies this is any sort of retaliatory strike, but rather part of the ongoing civil war in that country. In the evening George W. Bush arrives in Washington D.C. to meet his staff for further action discussions. Later he tells the nation that the "U.S. government will make no distinction between the terrorists who committed these acts and those who harbour them".




Welcome to Manhattan

II. Consequences for the world

1. Political and military consequences

1.1 How the world reacted

September 11 affected the domestic and foreign policy of hundreds of countries. Many introduced new security laws and joined the coalition against terror. In the following section the impact of September 11 on the world's most influential countries is briefly discussed, that is to say the United States of America, Russia and the European, Arabian and Islamic states.


1.1.1 United States of America

"America is under attack!" one of the President's advisors whispered to George W. Bush, visiting a school in Sarasota, just seconds after the second plane hit the World Trade Center. Soon afterwards the President was on board Air Force One talking to his administration about what to do and how to react to the attacks. In the following days Bush and his advisors had to clarify who the guilty were, how to catch them and where to get help[5].

The wire puller was found quickly. On September 15 George W. Bush met with his national security advisors at Camp David. Afterwards he told reporters that Saudi Osama Bin Laden was the prime suspect[6]. Bush's aim was to catch Bin Laden and to destroy his terror network al-Qaeda. So the next step was to find allies for a fight against terrorism. While European states immediately demonstrated total solidarity, it was much harder for the U.S. government to include questionable partners like Pakistan into their world wide coalition. For a war against the Taliban, who were hiding and supporting Bin Laden and the al-Qaeda, it was not only necessary to provide many soldiers, but also to have ground presence and military bases in Arabian countries like Saudi Arabia or the Oman.

On September 12 the NATO proclaimed Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty, which ratified the terrorist attacks on the United States of America as being an attack on all member states[7]. On September 14 the president provided a $40 billion emergency response package, specifically to help the economy deal with the disaster.

On September 24 President Bush signed an Executive Order freezing the assets of 27 organizations and persons known to be linked to al-Qaeda and suspected of funding terrorism[8].

On October 7 the United States started the war in Afghanistan. American and British jet fighters launched strikes against Bin Laden's training camps and Taliban facilities.

The attacks also changed U.S. immigration policy. In December 2001 the Justice Department interviewed nearly 5,000 Arabs or Muslims who were not citizens of the United States[9]. Some of them were later arrested for immigration violations.

September 11 also halted an initiative by the Mexican President Fox and U.S. President Bush to allow undocumented Mexican workers, who already were in the USA, to become legal residents.

On October 26, 2001 President George W. Bush signed into law the controversial "USA Patriot Act"[10]. This allows law enforcement officials to wiretap phones, to intercept and monitor electronic communications, to survey financial, medical and student records, to break into offices or homes without prior notification and to deport or detain non-citizens without judicial appeal.

After criticism of U.S. intelligence services mounted in the beginning of 2002, CIA and FBI reformed and modernized. The FBI, for instance, hired 400 analysts and fluent speakers of Arabic, Middle Eastern and South Asian languages, shifted nearly 500 agents from violent crime and drug investigation to terrorism fighting and created an office of intelligence to gather, analyze and share national security information about terrorist activities. The "USA Patriot Act" increased the FBI's power to amass information during terrorism investigations. Agents were also given more power to observe religious and political groups or to visit houses of worship without evidence that a crime had been committed.

1.1.2 Germany

Four of the terrorists who hijacked the airplanes on September 11 had lived and studied in Germany. After 9/11, German government approved new anti-terrorist measures and spent $1.4 billion on security improvements[11]. A new "paragraph on terrorism" was introduced into the criminal code. The rights of associations were curtailed[12]. Before, authorities had been unable to ban religious organizations. Now police can react against groups which abuse their religious status to engage in criminal activity. To pay for these new expenditures the German government enforced a special tax on tobacco.

Additionally a series of new security measures for screening airport personnel was determined. These controls not only target airline employees but also baggage handlers and cleaners.

As in many other countries, data protection laws were eased to give authorities access to personal information from the federal intelligence service. The Federal Secretary of the State, Otto Schily succeeded in implementing a state-wide "computer search", in German called "Rasterfahndung"[13]. When Schily introduced his second anti-terror package in October 2001, criticism from the media, human rights organisations and from the Green Party and even parts of the governing SPD was heard. It was mainly directed towards tighter controls on the right of asylum. Also, biometric data were supposed to be integrated into identity cards[14].

On October 1, 2001, the pacifistic Greens indicated approval of German army participation in the impending war against terrorism.German Soldiers When the Afghanistan War started, Germany sent special operations forces to Afghanistan and three frigates to the Gulf of Aden area.

Germany leads the training of Afghan police officers and is helping Humanitarian Assistance missions with air transport flights[15]. The Netherlands and Germany will together take over the lead over the International Security Assistance Force in Kabul from early 2003.

1.1.3 Other European states and Russia

As a consequence of 9/11 the European ministers of finance, secretaries of state and foreign secretaries met to decide on a strategy to avoid terrorist attacks in their own countries. The outcome was better cooperation of police and intelligence services between countries, diminished civil liberties and enhanced security laws, accelerated deportation and a more controlled issuing of visas, better identity protection by means of an EU fingerprint system connected to visa requests by foreigners and the freezing of financial resources linked to terrorist organisations[16]. Between September 12 and 24, 2001 anti-terrorism initiatives were adopted by the European Parliament. The Transport Council agreed on 14 September, 2001, to step up air safety and security measures[17]. The Justice and Home Affairs Council met on 20 September, 2001 and agreed on the establishment of a European arrest warrant[18].

Despite domestic criticism, British Prime Minister Tony Blair was the first to support the United States military by sending troops to fight in Afghanistan. The United Kingdom also introduced new laws, for instance to allow the detention without trial of non British citizens suspected of terrorism.

September 11 was a turning point in Russia's relations with the world. Russian President Vladimir Putin was the first world leader to call George W. Bush after the attacks. Later he offered to share intelligence with the United States, to open Russian airspace for humanitarian flights and to increase the supply of weapons to the Northern Alliance[19]. Russia's intentions were clear. Western political leaders had been very critical of Russia's second war against Chechnya. After the USA and its allies launched military attacks against Afghanistan, Western criticism quickly faded away. Russia also wanted other states to cancel or at least to reschedule its huge foreign debt. President Putin furthermore expected President Bush to rethink the American idea of abandoning the ABM treaty[20] and developing a missile defence system. September 11 also brought a new role for Russia in NATO. Just a few years ago it would have been unthinkable for U.S. troops to be stationed along Russia's southern border. On May 28, 2002 NATO and Russia signed a declaration according to which Russia had more say in crisis management, military issues and peacekeeping[21]. The so-called NATO-Russia council built up a new policy on counterterrorism, regional emergencies and arms control.

1.1.4 Islamic and Arabian states

All suicide assassins were born in Arabian countries, mostly in Saudi Arabia and Egypt. Although anti-Americanism is very common in those countries, and Osama Bin Laden is worshipped by wide parts of their population, many Arabian and Islamic governments joined the coalition against terror. While Turkey, the only NATO member with an almost entirely Muslim population, was always an important partner of the United States, other risky but very important countries like Pakistan could also be convinced by the U.S. government to support the USA in their war against terrorism. For their support in the Afghanistan War many Arabian countries were financially rewarded by the United States.

Under heavy pressure and in the face of financial pledges[22] the Pakistani government, which had aided the Taliban before September 11, promised its cooperation only days after the attacks.

Pakistan did not just provide logistic help, basing and over flight permission for the United States and their allies, but also gathered many soldiers along the Afghan border in support of the war against terrorism[23]. Pakistan also shared intelligence information about suspected terrorists and worked together with the FBI to catch suspected al-Qaeda and Taliban fugitives in the northern parts of Pakistan.

Although the mainstream Egyptian media (which is controlled by the government) spread rumours that an Israeli or Jewish conspiracy lay behind the terrorist attacks, Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak condemned the attacks and provided over flight permission for allied jets taking part in "Operation Enduring Freedom"[24]. In the beginning of 2002 the USA, the European Union and the World Bank pledged more than $10 billion to help Egypt's battered economy.

NATO partner Turkey has not just provided over flight authorization for all U.S. and coalition jet fighters, but has five ships participating in "Operation Enduring Freedom" and took command of the ISAF[25] in June 2002[26].

1.2 The Afghanistan War

First of all it is necessary to introduce Osama Bin Laden and his al-Qaeda network as well as the Taliban Regime and the Northern Alliance.


1.2.1 Osama Bin Laden and al-Qaeda

The terror network al-Qaeda was founded by Osama Bin Laden in the late eighties. Originally al-Qaeda was thought to be a resistance network working against Soviet troops after the USSR had occupied Afghanistan. At this time the terror group was supported by Saudi Arabia and the USA. When the USSR abandoned Afghanistan al-Qaeda's structure and motives changed. Now its asserted aims are terror against tolerant governments in Islamic countries, the killing of Americans and attacks on its allies[27]. Al-Qaeda has more than 20,000 supporters and followers[28], most of them in Afghanistan.Osama Bin Laden The terror network includes training camps, storehouses and communication buildings. Its financial sources are protection money, blackmailing, donations (mainly by Arabian regimes and oil billionaires) and drug trafficking. Eighty percent[29] of the world's heroin production originates from Afghanistan. Secret services have estimated that Islamic terror organisations control up to $25 billion[30]. Although al-Qaeda's base is in Afghanistan, the network is operating worldwide .The organisation is suspected of having committed attacks against U.S. establishments in Riad, Saudi Arabia, in 1995. Osama Bin Laden accepted responsibility for the attacks on U.S. soldiers in Somalia in October 1993 and for the attacks on U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania in August 1998, where 224 people were killed and more than 5000 were injured[31]. Al-Qaeda was also linked to the assault against the U.S. American warship "USS Cole" on October 12, 2000, when 17 crew members lost their lives.

All these attacks were characteristic of the al-Qaeda network. They were all committed by suicide assassins, they were coordinated to take place on the same day, their aim was to kill as many Americans as possible, they had been planned over a long period of time and they were all committed without prior warnings. All these points are consistent with the attacks on 9/11. So it was obvious very early that al-Qaeda was responsible for the terror attacks on September 11.

1.2.2 The Taliban regime and the Northern Alliance

The Northern Alliance is a loose confederation of Afghan militias and warlords assembled from different ethnic minorities living in the north of Afghanistan. It was brought into being in 1979 as a result of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan[32]. After the battered Soviets withdrew in 1989 the Northern Alliance turned against Afghanistan's communist president, Muhammad Najibullah, and dropped him in 1992. The Northern Alliance then cruelly ruled Afghanistan for the next four years. It was a period marred by civil war between the Northern Alliance and Pashtun warlords and infighting among Alliance factions. The Northern Alliance held about 15 percent of the country in the northern parts of Afghanistan before the Afghanistan War started (see map 1 in appendix).

The Taliban movement was founded in Kandahar in 1994 by Islamic students who interpreted the Islam very radically[33]. They occupied Kabul in September 1996 and banished the former regime[34]. The Taliban government had only been accepted by Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and United Arab Republic and had been supported by the Pakistani military regime, not only financially. The United Nations and other international communities condemned the Taliban regime because of its violation of human rights[35] and suppression of women, especially their exclusion from the workforce. In October 1999 the U.S. government declared political and economic sanctions against the Taliban regime for supporting and offering safe haven to Osama Bin Laden.

The Taliban regime had already made headlines before 9/11. On March 10, 2001 Taliban fighters blew up two Buddha statues in Bamiyan[36], which were built in the fourth and sixth century, although there were loud protests from archaeologists, museums and governments from all over the world. On August 3 eight members of a charity organisation called Shelter Now were arrested[37]. They were freed months later by American soldiers. On September 9 the Northern Alliance's military leader Ahmad Shah Massoud was assassinated by Taliban warriors[38].

1.2.3 The Afghanistan War and its consequences

The Afghanistan War was a direct consequence of the September 11 attacks. After the United States had presented evidence that Osama Bin Laden was responsible for the attacks, President Bush urged the Taliban Regime to deliver Osama Bin Laden. Since the Taliban ignored these intimidations, the United States started "Operation Enduring Freedom" with air strikes on October 7, 2001[39].

Initial goals of this war against terrorism were to disrupt the use of Afghanistan as a base for terrorists and to attack the military infrastructure of the Taliban. After the fall of the Taliban, the war's main goal became hunting down al-Qaeda and the left Taliban warriors. On October 30 the USA confirmed the use of special ground forces in Afghanistan supporting warriors of the Northern Alliance. In the night between November 12 and 13 the Taliban escaped from Kabul and the Northern Alliance entered Afghanistan's capital city. In November the Northern Alliance furthermore conquered Kunduz, Herat and Mazar-e-Sharif. On November 25 U.S. soldiers entered the Afghan capital Kabul. Five days later American military forces started their offensive in the mountains of Tora Bora, where Bin Laden was suspected to be.

Hamid Karsai

On December 7 the Northern Alliance captured the south Afghan city Kandahar[40]. It was the last big city controlled by the Taliban. Taliban leader Mullah Omar managed to escape. On December 5, 2001 members of Afghan parties signed an agreement for an interim government lasting six months at the Petersberg in Bonn, Germany. By the end of December Hamid Karsai's interim government had been sworn in. On June 19, 2002 the Loja Dschirga, a traditional Afghan national council, confirmed Karsai as the new President for another two years. In 2004 new elections will be held and a new constitution will be ratified.

A bomb attack in Kabul on September 5, 2002 which killed 30 and injured 150 persons and the following attempted murder on President Hamid Karsai show that war in Afghanistan is not over. It will be several years until peace and order will come to Afghanistan.

2. Economic consequences

The attacks on the World Trade Center, heart of world capitalism, and the Pentagon, symbol of the U.S. military, hit the economy all around the globe. Tourism, leisure and insurance industries suffered most. The insurance industry paid out record claims resulting from the terrorist attacks and the fear of flying as well as an expanding recession caused many consumers to cancel their vacations.


2.1 Consequences for companies

Although most branches of the industry faced long-term and large financial losses following the events of 9/11, in some industries, especially security and law enforcement the terrorist attacks created jobs and brought in more earnings. Companies producing security computer software or security systems like surveillance equipment, fingerprint recognition devices and bomb detection machinery were inundated with orders. Also, pharmaceutical companies like Bayer, which produce vaccines and antibiotics that guard against potential bio terrorism threats like anthrax and smallpox could profit.

Furthermore banks have been greatly affected. As a reaction to the September 11 attacks Germany's largest credit institution "Deutsche Bank" has decided to cut its workplaces from 94,800 to 80,300 worldwide by the end of 2003, the German "Commerzbank" dismissed 4,300 of its 38,000 employees[41]. The reinsurance industry reported about 33,000 claims demanding more than $40 billion[42]. The world's largest insurance company "Münchener Rück" was worth €7 billion less just one day after 9/11[43]. Other industries like entertainment or tourism suffered heavily from the impact as well.

2.2 Consequences for the world market
World Market

September 11 accelerated the global economy's existing downward tendency. Seconds after the attacks, the prices of gold, oil and bonds increased rapidly. The London FTSE, the Paris CAC and the German DAX all took large losses in the first few days[44]. Very few companies saw an increase in their stock prices. These were mainly military and space contractors like Raytheon (37%), L-3 Communications (35.8%), Alliant Techsystems (23.5%) or Northrop Grumman (21.2%)[45]. World leaders and central bankers reacted immediately to the attacks. President George W. Bush and members of Congress provided "a $40 billion emergency response package to help deal with the tragic events of September 11"[46]. This funding was made "to respond to and recover from the attacks and to protect national security"[47]. In Europe among others interest rates were cut by the European Central Bank. Surprisingly, it took only a few months until the world market had regenerated. The U.S. central bank lowered the key interest rate by 50 basis points just before the "New York Stock Exchange" reopened on September 17, 2001. The OPEC[48] raised its oil production and so the oil price receded back to normal just days after September 11. In November 2001 the German DAX noted a plus of 25 percent, German NEMAX even a plus of 60 percent[49].

The serious immediate economic consequences of the attacks were limited by a carefully considered and well-organized crisis management by business groups and governments.

2.3 Economic consequences on entertainment industry

Even entertainment has not been unaffected by the terror attacks. Shortly after the airplanes hit the World Trade Center most television stations cancelled their scheduled programs to concentrate on current events. The German music channel "Viva" completely stopped broadcasting video clips on Tuesday as a sign of respect for the victims and the victims' families[50].Viva Radio stations avoided broadcasting certain songs like Frank Sinatra's "New York, New York".

In the weeks after 9/11 advertisements on TV were limited to a minimum. This was not just because of all the specials and extra editions, but also because companies didn't dare to show ads. So for example Coca Cola and Nike stopped all their advertisement campaigns[51]. Ads containing airplanes or skyscrapers which had previously been used as metaphors for success, power or ascension were cancelled. Many movies (e.g. "Spiderman") or series (e.g. "The Simpsons") were re-scheduled or re-edited in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks. Hollywood postponed movies such as "Collateral Damage", "Gangsters" or "Big Trouble", a comedy about nuclear weapons in an airplane[52]. Theatres, cinemas and theme parks like "Disneyland California" reacted by closing its doors for several days[53].

As another consequence of September 11 dozens of books about Islam, terrorism or America's place in the world were published and many became bestsellers.

Even fashion changed. "We did not change our creations after September 11 since we believe that creativity should have no limits"[54] said fashion designer Stefano Gabbana of Dolce & Gabbana. But human beings apparently didn't listen to him. Actually patriotic clothes like t-shirts printed with the "Star Spangled Banner" or "I love NYC" were bought by millions of people, especially in the United States and Europe.

I love New York City
2.4 Economic consequences on tourism

Using a civilian aircraft as a suicide bomb had a major effect on the confidence of travellers and their travel behaviours worldwide.

For the first time in 20 years the number of tourists declined. While in 2000 tourism increased overall by 7.4 percent, in 2001 it dropped 1.3 percent[55]. Even months after the events of September 11 air traffic inside and into the United States was limited. Providers of intercontinental flights like German "Lufthansa" or "British Airways" were sharply restrained by the downturn of travellers. Additional costs for better air security and increased insurance premiums had to be paid. While American airlines received $15 billion from the U.S. government European airlines were left to fend for themselves. The already weakened Swiss airline "Swissair" had to report insolvency.

The American tourism industry was hit very heavily. Usually 95 percent of the tourists who visit Miami arrive by air[56]. This situation faded away after September 11. Although many hotels halved their prices, attendance nonetheless fell rapidly. For instance, the occupancy at the "Loew's", one of the Miami Beach five star hotels, dropped from 80 percent to 30[57]. U.S. politicians advised American citizens to intercede for their country's own tourist industry by spending their holidays in other U.S. states.

This situation was recurring in tourist destinations all over the world. Some holiday hotels in Thailand "experienced a fifty percent drop in North American travellers and a thirty percent drop in European travellers" in 2001[58]. The Thai government started an advertising campaign called "Be My Guest" to promote natural attractions so that foreign visitors would quickly come back bringing capital to the tourist orientated Thailand.

Arabian countries have been affected as well. Tourists avoided traditional Middle East attractions. Egypt was particularly hard hit. Tourism earned the government over $4 billion in 2000, and more than two million Egyptians worked in this industry.

The tourist industry was the first to be hit, but compared to other branches people quickly got back to normal and travelled like before.

3. Reactions of society and consequences for people

But also life for ordinary people changed. Many were emotionally affected or angered, some even had to deal with traumas and psychogenic disorders.


Many of the fears people suffered after September 11 are obvious. Some of them did not dare to work or go shopping in skyscrapers or large department stores for some time after the attacks. Panic buying was common and many were afraid of using drinking water because they thought it could be poisoned. Many more people were afraid of flying in an airplane or attending big events.

On the other hand, for thousands of people the attacks provoked a marked positive change to their lives. At the time the towers were still burning "there were reports of marriage proposals being made, divorces being called off"[59] and "young singles hitting the bars in search of physical comfort"[60], which was later called "terror sex". Nine months after the terrorist attacks New York was blessed by a baby boom. From January 2002 onwards the preparation courses for parents-to-be at the "Elizabeth Seton Childbearing Center" were fully booked for several months[61]. At the "Long Island College Hospital" 20 percent more childbirths took place than the years before[62].

Sports events also have a great potential to become targets of terrorist attacks. There are hardly any other events where such large numbers of people come together so closely.Patriotism After September 11 many sporting events such as the "Major League Soccer" were postponed or even cancelled and not just in the United States of America. The U.S. government tried to assuage people's fears. It spent, for example, an additional $40 million[63] on security for the Winter Olympics 2002 in Salt Lake City. But many people have nevertheless avoided large events since 9/11.

For most people all over America and Europe the relative safety of the former decades had evaporated. It was the first time for more than hundred years that the United States of America had been attacked on their own soil. The attacks not just claimed more dead than Pearl Harbour in 1941[64]. In September 2001 all victims were civilians. The terror attacks quashed a whole generation of Americans' illusion of their own country's invulnerability. The feeling of secureness disappeared when the airplanes hit the World Trade Center. This was probably the reason why there was so little resistance to the government's security laws, which were approved just weeks later.

A tremendous wave of patriotism swept through the United States after the events of September 11. Sales of flags, ribbons and patriotic pins hit record marks. The attacks and the fear of a war generated a national feeling which made it nearly impossible to preach dialogue and diplomacy or to criticize the President or the government's foreign policy for weeks after September 11.

But it was not just the fear of war which scared the people of America. Anthrax cases in the United States and later in Europe horrified people only weeks after the September 11 attacks. Initially it was thought that mail containing anthrax spores were sent by Islamic terrorists, but soon it grew clear that these crimes were committed by enemies of the government[65].


3.1 Solidarity and sorrow

After the attacks condolences from world leaders, messages of love, financial generosity and support from world citizens, flowers left at U.S. embassies, candle light vigils held all over the world and thousands of people signing condolence books, showed the firm solidarity of all nations with the United States of America.

Shock

Many people who were looking for security found it in religious faith or the church. They felt alone and were sad, but in church they had the chance to meet people experiencing similar feelings. In September 2001, Canon Jim Rosenthal of the Anglican Communion explained that, "church is still one of the main ways for people to be with each other and with God"[66]. A spokesman of the Evangelical Church said that in Germany the number of church visitors doubled after September 11[67]. Also synagogues and churches in Great Britain were attended in greater numbers than before the attacks[68].

On September 12 many German politicians including Chancellor Gerhard Schröder and Federal President Johannes Rau commemorated the victims of 9/11 at the St.-Hedwigs Cathedral in Berlin[69]. Memorial church services took place in many countries of the world. In New York, 26,000 people gathered on September 23 at the baseball stadium of the New York Yankees in remembrance of the victims of the attacks. Even in the Lebanon and Palestine thousands of Christians, Jews and Muslims mourned together and lighted candles in front of U.S. embassies[70]. Flags flew at half mast almost everywhere.

3.2 Fury and anger

Although on September 13 President Bush "urged the American people not to hold Arab-Americans and Muslims responsible for the terrorist attacks"[71] and promised a quick response to aggression against them he could not contain hate crimes being committed against Muslim or Arabic-looking people. Violence against the 3.5 million Muslims living in the United States increased 1,700 percent during 2001[72]. More than 500 incidents such as verbal and written insults, incendiary bombs in mosques, smashed shop windows but also death threats and murders of Muslims were reported in the USA just one week after 9/11[73]. In Bridgeview, Illinois, more than 100, for the most part young people, shouted "Muslims out!" in front of a mosque[74]. Most attacks happened in New York where hundreds of thousands of Arabic immigrants live. Afghan restaurant owners had to take away their window signs to avoid financial problems[75]. Women wearing traditional clothes were warned by the American Arab Community to stay at home.

Muslims have been included in church services on purpose after September 11 to counteract the population's aggression. When President Bush visited the first large memorial services at the National Cathedral in New York City, Jewish and Muslim religious leaders spoke next to Christian clergymen.

3.3 Traumas and psychogenic disorders

Many victims, rescuers, relatives and eyewitnesses (even on television) of the September 11 attacks could not escape the horrific images of the terrorist attack. The resulting traumas were expressed as irritability, insomnia, lack of concentration, depression, changes in eating habits such as loss of appetite or overeating, separation anxiety, recurring thoughts or nightmares about the event, difficulty focusing on work or daily activities, spontaneous crying, feelings of despair or hopelessness[76]. Today, psychiatrists have good success rates in treating effects of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). But not everyone who experiences trauma requires treatment afterwards. Many recovered with the help of family, friends or clergymen.

The U.S. government reacted quickly. For example more than $4 million[77] have been designated for children in New York City shocked by the events. Their parents later related that "returning to class and seeing classmates again has been a positive step in the healing process"[78].

An opinion poll by the National Institute on Drug Abuse reported that many inhabitants of New York City started or intensified taking drugs to come to grips with their trauma. Twenty five percent of those questioned admitted drinking more alcohol, 25 percent indicated they smoked more cigarettes and three percent said they were taking more drugs like cannabis[79].

3.4 Anti war demonstrations and protests
Burning US Falg

Only 18 percent of the Americans answered with "yes", when asked whether U.S. policies and American military presence all around the world were the main reasons for the September 11 attacks. In the Middle East, up to 81 percent of the population thought so[80].

Violent anti-American protests started in several, mostly Muslim, countries after the United States of America and Great Britain launched air strikes against Taliban and al-Qaeda targets in Afghanistan. Mostly young people from Indonesia, Palestine, Bangladesh, Egypt, Sudan, Pakistan, Nigeria and Kenya but also Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines demonstrated on the streets to denounce the U.S. and praise the al-Qaeda network. Many of them called on Arabic and Islamic countries or their governments not to extend assistance to western military forces. Several people died or were arrested by the police. Nevertheless governments in these predominantly Muslim countries expressed cautious support or at least understanding for the air strikes. These governments insisted the protesters represented only a small minority of public opinion. There was a high risk of less stable governments falling had those protests got out of control.

There have either been anti-war demonstrations and denunciations in other parts of the world including Europe and the USA.


C) End: Short summary, possible future impacts and personal statement

The consequences of September 11 have been far reaching. Many countries introduced new security laws to prevent further attacks and to restore the feeling of safety people had had before the attacks at least to some extent. To fight terrorism actively many countries, especially from Europe, joined the coalition against terror and supported the United States in the Afghanistan War. Afghanistan was freed from the Taliban and is willing to become a democracy. The economy was hit hard by the attacks. While some branches still suffer from the consequences of September 11 several came through the recession quickly.

The terrorists of 9/11 definitely achieved that even today, more than a year later, our world is still threatened and destabilized by a new war, this time possibly against Iraq. Iraq is said to own or produce ABC-weapons and Saddam Hussein might be quite willing to make these weapons of mass destruction available to terrorists.

Violent terrorist attacks intending to shock the world and to attract the people's attention, happened before September 11 and they will certainly happen again. Examples of terrible terrorist acts after 9/11 are the attacks on a synagogue in Djerba, on a discotheque in Bali and the hostage taking by Chechen rebels in a theatre in Moscow, all of them causing many deaths.

There will be no escape from the global reach of terrorism if the world leaders can't come to terms with locating and fighting its origins. It is not easy to find and eliminate the roots of terrorism by Islamic activists because they are so manifold. Some, however, are obvious. Probably the most important step to an improved global security is finding a way to establish long-lasting peace between Israel and Palestine, as well as the other Arabian and Islamic states. Terrorist attacks in every corner of the world have revealed that global security is increasingly difficult to achieve through military means. Ways of preventing such attacks could be developed by creating social and economic security, through worldwide cooperation and by maintaining and regarding human rights and the rights of minorities.


D) Appendix

Map Afghanistan

map 1 - Afghanistan before the United States started their offensive in October 2001


E) Sources

Newspapers and magazines


Books


Internet sites


Pictures

All pictures were downloaded from the "FastTrack" file sharing network ("KaZaA Lite K++"; http://k-lite.tk).


Other Sources




[1] cf: http://www.state.gov/coalition/cr/fs/12701.htm, p. 1

[2] cf: Remke, S., Für immer vermisst, in: Focus, 24.09.2001, Nr. 39, p. 44

[3] FAA: acronym for "Federal Aviation Administration"; its mission is to provide a safe, secure and efficient global aerospace system that contributes to national security and the promotion of U.S. aerospace safety.

[4] cf: Heilbrunn, J., Das Jahr Danach, in: Süddeutsche Zeitung Magazin, 30.08.2002, Nr. 35, p. 21

[5] cf: Tot oder lebendig (Teil 1), ZDF, 27.08.2002, 22:15 - 23:00

[6] cf: http://usinfo.state.gov/topical/pol/terror/01122631.htm, p. 2

[7] cf: Wienecke, D., Chronik aktuell: Der 11. September 2001, Gütersloh, Chronik Verlag, 20011, p. 59

[8] cf: http://usinfo.state.gov/topical/pol/terror/01122631.htm, p. 7

[9] cf: http://www.islam-online.net/english/News/2002-04/10/article30.shtml, p. 1

[10] USA Patriot Act: acronym for "Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001"

[11] cf: Des Kanzlers neue Freunde, in: Focus, 24.09.2001, Nr. 39, p. 26

[12] cf: Des Kanzlers neue Freunde, in: Focus, 24.09.2001, Nr. 39, p. 28

[13] cf: Wienecke, D., Chronik aktuell: Der 11. September 2001, Gütersloh, Chronik Verlag, 20011, p. 91

[14] cf: Wienecke, D., Chronik aktuell: Der 11. September 2001, Gütersloh, Chronik Verlag, 20011, p. 91

[15] cf: http://usinfo.state.gov/topical/pol/terror/020815contribute.htm, p. 7

[16] cf: Wienecke, D., Chronik aktuell: Der 11. September 2001, Gütersloh, Chronik Verlag, 20011, p. 137 and Des Kanzlers neue Freunde, in: Focus, 24.09.2001, Nr. 39, p. 27

[17] cf: http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/110901/me02_187.htm, p. 1

[18] cf: http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/110901/me02_187.htm, p. 2

[19] cf: Wienecke, D., Chronik aktuell: Der 11. September 2001, Gütersloh, Chronik Verlag, 20011, p. 92

[20] ABM treaty: acronym for "Anti-Ballistic Missile treaty"

[21] cf: http://www.cnn.com/2002/WORLD/europe/05/28/nato.russia/, p. 1

[22] cf: Wirtschafts- und Entwicklungshilfe für Pakistan, in: Focus, 29.04.2002, Nr. 18, p. 310

[23] cf: http://usinfo.state.gov/topical/pol/terror/020815contribute.htm, p. 11

[24] cf: http://usinfo.state.gov/topical/pol/terror/020815contribute.htm, p. 5

[25] ISAF: acronym for "International Security Assistance Force"; The ISAF which works closely with the United Nations and the Afghan interim government assists with Afghanistan's reconstruction and in developing and training future Afghan security forces.

[26] cf: http://usinfo.state.gov/topical/pol/terror/020815contribute.htm, p. 15

[27] cf: Wienecke, D., Chronik aktuell: Der 11. September 2001, Gütersloh, Chronik Verlag, 20011, p. 119

[28] cf: Den Feind im Land, in: Focus, 15.09.2001, Nr. 38, p. 53

[29] cf: Wienecke, D., Chronik aktuell: Der 11. September 2001, Gütersloh, Chronik Verlag, 20011, p. 104

[30] cf: Wienecke, D., Chronik aktuell: Der 11. September 2001, Gütersloh, Chronik Verlag, 20011, p. 104

[31] cf: Wienecke, D., Chronik aktuell: Der 11. September 2001, Gütersloh, Chronik Verlag, 20011, p. 119

[32] cf: http://n-tv.de/2775507.html, p. 1

[33] cf: http://www.discovery-channel.de/de/pub/specials/terror/organisationen/taliban.htm, p. 1

[34] cf: http://www.infoplease.com/spot/taliban-time.html, p. 1

[35] cf: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/144382.stm, p. 2

[36] cf: http://www.morgenweb.de/archiv/2001/jahresrueckblick/03/politik/20010315_taliban.html, p. 1

[37] cf: http://english.pravda.ru/world/2001/09/03/14049.html, p. 1

[38] Wienecke, D., Chronik aktuell: Der 11. September 2001, Gütersloh, Chronik Verlag, 20011, p. 13

[39] Wienecke, D., Chronik aktuell: Der 11. September 2001, Gütersloh, Chronik Verlag, 20011, p. 13

[40] cf: http://usinfo.state.gov/topical/pol/terror/01122631.htm, p. 38

[41] cf: http://www.ndr.de/ndr/special/wtc/banken.html, p. 2

[42] cf: http://www.iii.org/media/updates/press.635680, p. 1

[43] cf: Schockwellen an der Börse, in: Focus, 15.09.2001, Nr. 38, p. 250

[44] cf: Schockwellen an der Börse, in: Focus, 15.09.2001, Nr. 38, p. 252

[45] cf: http://www.alternet.org/story.html?StoryID=14196, p. 2

[46] http://usinfo.state.gov/topical/pol/terror/01100304.htm, p. 1

[47] http://usinfo.state.gov/topical/pol/terror/01100304.htm, p. 1

[48] OPEC: acronym for "Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries"

[49] cf: Wienecke, D., Chronik aktuell: Der 11. September 2001, Gütersloh, Chronik Verlag, 20011, p. 103

[50] cf: Als die Spots stehen blieben, in: Focus, 15.09.2001, Nr. 38, p. 312

[51] cf: Als die Spots stehen blieben, in: Focus, 15.09.2001, Nr. 38, p. 312

[52] cf: Leland, J. and Marks, P., Entertaining a Nation in Mourning: An Industry Rethinks Its Lines, in: September 11, World and Press Special, Bremen, Eilers & Schünemann Verlag, 20021, p. 23

[53] cf: Die Welt stand still, in: Focus, 15.09.2001, Nr. 38, p. 309

[54] http://www.time.com/time/europe/specials/changes/fashion.html, p. 1

[55] cf: http://www.vhb.de/kursverlag/archiv/artikel05-02.shtml, p. 1

[56] cf: Fenton, B. and Sapsted, D., Tourism is the first to feel the pain, in: September 11, World and Press Special, Bremen, Eilers & Schünemann Verlag, 20021, p. 8

[57] cf: Fenton, B. and Sapsted, D., Tourism is the first to feel the pain, in: September 11, World and Press Special, Bremen, Eilers & Schünemann Verlag, 20021, p. 8

[58] http://www.business-in-asia.com/11_September.htm, p. 1

[59] http://www.time.com/time/europe/specials/changes/reflections.html, p. 1

[60] http://www.time.com/time/europe/specials/changes/reflections.html, p. 1

[61] cf: Kinder der Katastrophe, in: Focus, 15.04.2002, Nr. 16

[62] cf: Kinder der Katastrophe, in: Focus, 15.04.2002, Nr. 16

[63] cf: http://www.time.com/time/europe/specials/changes/sports.html, p. 1

[64] cf: Trauma Pearl Harbor, in: Focus, 15.09.2001, Nr. 38, p. 300

[65] cf: http://online.wdr.de/online/news2/milzbrand_chronik/index.phtml, p. 5

[66] http://www.time.com/time/europe/specials/changes/religion.html, p. 1

[67] cf: http://www.time.com/time/europe/specials/changes/religion.html, p. 1

[68] cf: http://www.time.com/time/europe/specials/changes/religion.html, p. 1

[69] cf: Wienecke, D., Chronik aktuell: Der 11. September 2001, Gütersloh, Chronik Verlag, 20011, p. 60

[70] cf: Wienecke, D., Chronik aktuell: Der 11. September 2001, Gütersloh, Chronik Verlag, 20011, p. 78

[71] http://usinfo.state.gov/topical/pol/terror/01122631.htm, p. 2

[72] cf: http://hrw.org/press/2002/11/usahate.htm, p. 1

[73] cf: Berke, W., Der 11. September, Essen, Klartext Verlag, 20011, p. 59

[74] cf: Berke, W., Der 11. September, Essen, Klartext Verlag, 20011, p. 59

[75] cf: Broughton, P., New prejudices emerge in an embittered city, in: September 11, World and Press Special , Bremen, Eilers & Schünemann Verlag, 20021, p. 5

[76] cf: http://www.ncptsd.org/facts/disasters/fs_survivors_disaster.html, p. 1

[77] cf: Foster, P., Pupils hope for healing with return to school, in: September 11, World and Press Special , Bremen, Eilers & Schünemann Verlag, 20021, p. 4

[78] cf: Foster, P., Pupils hope for healing with return to school, in: September 11, World and Press Special , Bremen, Eilers & Schünemann Verlag, 20021, p. 4

[79] cf: Posttraumatisches Kiffen, in: Focus, 27.05.2002, Nr. 22, p. 11

[80] cf: Cornwell, R., Global poll finds most think America brought terror attacks on itself, in: September 11, World and Press Special, Bremen, Eilers & Schünemann Verlag, 20021, p. 27